Study protocol: DigiHand - the emergence of handwriting skills in digital classrooms

  • Siv M. Gamlem Volda University College
  • Wenke Mork Rogne Volda University College
  • Vibeke Rønneberg University of Stavanger
  • Per Henning Uppstad University of Stavanger


This protocol article presents the project “DigiHand: The emergence of handwriting skills in digital classrooms.”1 The project is a longitudinal natural experiment investigating how the use of different writing tools influences students’ handwriting and letter knowledge, word reading, spelling, written narrative composition and teacher–student interactions in Grades 1 and 2 (students aged 6 years in Grade 1). Participants are 33 schools (n = 585 students) representing three occurring conditions for learning writing skills in early years. Students in these conditions either (1) learn to write on a tablet while postponing handwriting, (2) learn both to handwrite and write on a tablet or (3) learn to handwrite. Effect analyses are conducted on four main domains of measures: (i) students’ letter knowledge, spelling competence and word reading competence; (ii) students’ handwriting fluency; (iii) students’ ability to write narrative compositions; (iv) quality of teacher–student interactions. This protocol describes the background, design and pre- and outcome measures for the research project.

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How to Cite
Gamlem, S. M., Mork Rogne, W., Rønneberg, V., & Uppstad, P. H. (2020). Study protocol: DigiHand - the emergence of handwriting skills in digital classrooms. Nordic Journal of Literacy Research, 6(2).
handwriting vs. digital writing, postponing handwriting, tablets, teacher-student interaction, writing, word reading